• 1982 – 1985 » New York City Health & Hospitals/Maternity Infant Care, full scope midwifery care, various sites including Cumberland Hospital, Brooklyn, NY, Brooklyn Hospital, Brooklyn, NY, and Woodhull Hospital, Brooklyn, NY. First CNM to practice at Brooklyn Hospital . Founding member of midwifery practice at Woodhull Hospital . Inner city midwifery practices providing care to impoverished African-American and Latina women
  • 1985 – 1986 » Feminist health clinic, well woman gynecology practice, Chelsea Women’s Health Services, New York, NY. Provider in FDA cervical cap study site providing data that contributed to FDA approval of the cervical cap for use in the United States.
  • 1986 – 1991 » New York City Health & Hospitals, Lincoln Hospital, Bronx, NY, Maternity Infant Care, various clinics, full scope midwifery care. Planned Parenthood of Upper Hudson, family planning care. Lincoln Hospital is an inner city midwifery practice providing care to impoverished African-American and Latina women. Midwives established Teen Clinic and were the primary providers of maternity care to adolescents in that setting.
  • 1991 – 1994 » Brooklyn Hospital/MIC, Brooklyn, NY, and HIP, Syosset Hospital, Syosset, New York, full scope midwifery care. Founded midwifery practice at Brooklyn Hospital where I helped to bring birthing beds and birthing room deliveries to that institution and facilitated change to hospital policy allowing support persons to be present during labor and birth without the prerequisite of completion of childbirth education classes. Brooklyn Hospital was an inner city midwifery practice providing care to impoverished African-American and Latina women. HIP Syosset Hospital was a suburban setting providing care to working people contracted with HIP for their health care.
  • 1994 – 1997 » Private practice with obstetricians in a multi-specialty physician group, Mount Kisco Medical Group/Northern Westchester Hospital, Mt. Kisco, NY, full scope midwifery care. First CNM in that medical group and hospital. Facilitated changes to hospital policies permitting women to labor without continuous electronic fetal monitoring, to eat and drink in labor, to have the right to choose to have children present at the birth, to decline pacifier use and/or “test” bottles for their babies, to have the right to early discharge for themselves and their babies (hours after birth rather than days). Introduced use of birthing stool and choice of position/out of bed delivery. Worked to end required admission of well newborn to nursery for period of observation, separated from mother. Served as a breastfeeding resource within the community and facilitated the introduction of the use of a professional lactation consultant outside of the hospital setting for new mothers. Suburban midwifery practice providing care to an affluent professional Caucasian population.
  • 1997 – 1999 » Private practice with Family Practice physician group in small rural hospital, Long Prairie, Minnesota, later purchased by CentraCare. In addition, provided home birth services to local population. Provided care to local rural population including Amish population as well as occasional Twin Cities residents who would travel to Long Prairie to receive midwifery care there. Provided well newborn care to those infants whose deliveries we attended.
  • 1997 – 2000 » Casual on call midwife Park Nicollet, Methodist Hospital, St. Louis Park, Minnesota, provided care to midwifery clients in the hospital including evaluation of pregnancy related problems, labor and birth; University of MN Epidemiology Research Center, health exams of elder women research subjects including endometrial biopsy; casual part time for Planned Parenthood of Minnesota/South Dakota, family planning care.
  • 2001 – 2004 » Planned Parenthood of Minnesota/South Dakota, St. Cloud, MN, full time, family planning care.
  • 2004 – 2005 » Park Nicollet, Shakopee, Minnesota, provided full scope midwifery care.
  • 2005 – 2007 » Founded first CNM home birth practice in the Twin Cities, Minnesota . Established ties with a hospital based CNM practice as well as physicians, including perinatologists, obstetricians and family practice physicians, so that the home birth care I provided occurred within a health care system that provided for consultation and referral as needed.
  • Full Scope-provided prenatal care, labor management and delivery, postpartum care, preventative health exams and family planning care.
  • Sept/2007 – Dec/2007 » Mountain Midwifery Center, Englewood, Colorado. Temporary position at free standing birth center providing prenatal care, labor and birth, postpartum and newborn care.
  • Dec/2007 – Oct/2008 » Denver Health Medical Center, Denver, Colorado. Per diem position providing labor and birth and postpartum care.
  • Sept/2010 – Dec/2010 » Al Corniche Hospital, Abu Dhabi, UAE.  Provided midwifery care in a hospital in the developing world.
  • 2007 – present » To Each Her Own Women’s Health Services, Denver, Colorado. Home birth practice from 2007 through 2017, and from May 5, 2017 (the International Day of the Midwife), Home Birth and Hospital Birth at St. Joseph’s Hospital, Denver, Colorado.


  • Arapahoe Community College, Littleton, Colorado, A.D., R.N. 1978
  • Loretto Heights College, Denver, Colorado, B.S. 1981
  • University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida
  • Certified Nurse Midwife, American College of Nurse Midwives, 1982
  • Master Science Nursing, University of Miami, 1983


  • Licensed as a Registered Nurse
  • Advanced Practice Registered Nurse
  • Certified Nurse Midwife


  • American College of Nurse Midwives, National
  • American College of Nurse Midwives, Region V, Chapter 3
  • American Nurses Association
  • Colorado Nurses Association


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